Optogenetics and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are two distinct technologies that can be used together to monitor and control biological processes. Optogenetics is a technique that uses light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels 1. On the other hand, WBANs are wireless networks of wearable computing devices that are placed on or inside the human body 2. They typically connect independent nodes or sensors that are on the body of a person and can be used for monitoring vital parameters and communication between smart textiles 2.
Graphene is a material that offers unique advantages for implantable neural systems by combining properties like optical transparency, flexibility, high conductivity, and biocompatibility in a single material 13. It has been used to fabricate transparent artifact-free graphene electrodes for compact closed-loop optogenetics systems 1. These electrodes completely eliminate light-induced artifacts, which hinder the development of compact closed-loop optogenetics systems with conventional metal microelectrodes.
Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin, resulting in the emission of light 4. It has been used as an internal light source for in vivo optogenetic inhibition of neural activity 4. Two adeno-associated viruses encoding luciferase were tested and both produced concentration-dependent light after administration of the substrate, luciferin 4.
Nanotechnology is a field of science and engineering that deals with materials and devices with dimensions less than 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology has been used in optogenetics to develop novel nano-optogenetic approaches for precision immunotherapy using NIR light to wirelessly activate LiCAR-T cells by NIR-to-blue upconversion luminescence 2. In particular, the “nano-optogenetic immunotherapy” approach was implemented by genetically engineering the functional domains of CAR into two non-functional parts and installing photo-responsive modules into each part 2.
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